TSL450 Study Case

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES IN ELT ( English Language Teaching )

Study Case: Download (Presentation slides)

What’s inside?

STUDY CASE ONE
Prepared By;
Zaisma Firdani Ismail
Vanessa Jacqueline Ligadu
Noorkhazanah Kiflee
Mohd Faris Mohd Arifin
PROBLEM

How to choose the recipients of the award?

Acceptance from the meeting members about the suggestions.

What is teaching?
Definition
Teaching

“The act, practice, occupation, or profession of a teacher.”

(TheFreeDictionary by Farlex)
Criteria of Teaching
Teacher and learners

Teaching = learning

Pedagogy and teaching

Formal teaching & informal teaching
INDICATORS OF EXCELLENT TEACHING

PATIENT

ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO TAKE RISK.

ALWAYS HAVE POSITIVE ATTITUDES

POSSESS DEEP KNOWLEDGE ON THE SUBJECT AND ABLE TO MANIPULATE IT

COULD ATTRACT STUDENTS’ ATTENTION TO LEARN

ALERT TO THE NECESSITIES OF STUDENTS.

AVOID EMBARASSMENT OF STUDENTS.

LOVE TEACHING.

KOHLBERG
DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHIES VIEW
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)- Social Darwinist And Utilitarian Educator

Essentialism
RECOMMENDATIONS

Recognizing that effectiveness is of subjective nature, it is intended here to include but not be limited to the following:

i.   Innovative techniques and regular application of these techniques in the  classroom.

ii.  Presentation in an interesting and stimulating manner of course materials.

iii. Presentation of pertinent, timely and reliable knowledge relative   to the discussion at hand as well as the relationships between and across related areas of study.

iv. Respect for students inquiry and discussion both in and out of the classroom.

v. Other traits, techniques or qualities employed or possessed by the teacher to enhance, strengthen and encourage the students.

An active and positive record of service to students as an academic, professional or personal advisor.

Available to students for advice and guidance.

He or she has actively undertaken involvement in faculty development programs.

Has applied the knowledge and skills derived to effective teaching.

Developed innovative course offerings or programs of study providing enhanced educational opportunities for students beyond the confines of the classroom.

THANK YOU…

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Principles and Practices in ELT
CASE STUDY 2: LESSONS ON SYMBOLISM  IN POEMS.
Problem
The district curriculum guide calls for a unit n poetry, including lesson on “symbolism” in poems.

You’re concerned that many of your standard five students may not be ready to understand this abstract concept.

To test the waters, you ask a few students what a symbol is.

“ It’s sorta like a big metal thing you bang together.” Tracy waves her hands like a drum major. “ Yeah,” Sean adds, “ My sister plays one in the high school band.”

You realise they are on the wrong track here, so you try again.

“ I was thinking of a different kind of symbol, like a ring as a symbol of marriage or heart as a symbol of love or….

You’re met with blank stares
What do these students’ reactions tell you about children thinking?
By,
FARAH ZARIZA BINTI MOHAMAD ALI

Level of comprehension – There is a limitation.

Children’s minds could not yet tolerate abstract concept.

Intellectual development – different from adults’.

Cannot grasp metalanguage.

Kids-in an intellectual stage called “concrete operation” (Piaget, 1972).
How would you approach this unit?
By,
MOHD SIRHAJWAN BIN IDEK
Concrete Operation Stage (7 years old – 18 years)
Piaget (1972)
Theory of Cognitive Development
3 principles of approach

The need of concrete stimuli
Relevance of subject-matter
Degree of abstraction

The need of concrete stimuli
At this stage the children are capable of thinking abstractly with the presence of concrete or observable phenomena that they can sense.

Relevance of subject-matter
The use of language should be linked to children’s reality and experience (Carol Read, 1998). Thus, the symbols should be relevant to the students’ life.
Degree of abstraction
Logical and mathematical reasoning
During this time, children gain a better understanding of logical and mathematical abstract operations because they can sense the concrete objects before and after the abstract operation takes place.  But for symbolism, it involves the interrelationship between a concrete object and an abstract idea without any operation.

Inductive Logic
However, children are fairly good at the use of inductive logic. Inductive logic involves going from a specific experience to a general principle.

Clock
TIME
What more would you do to “listen” to your students’ thinking so you could match your teaching to their level of thinking?
By,
IBRAHIM BIN ISMAIL

What does a clock symbolise?
? Knowledge Questions: Testing recall and recognition of information.

Give one example of symbolism.
? Application Questions: Applying information heard or read to new situations.

Which one symbolise courage, lion or rose?
? Evaluation Questions: Making a judgement according to some set of criteria.

-(Brown, 2001)

“Teacher questions give the instructor immediate feedback about student comprehension.”
(Christenbury & Kelly 1983, and Kinsella 1991)

How would you give your students concrete experience with symbolism?
By,
AHMAD TAUFIK BIN MUHAMMAD TAHIR
Controlled Techniques
Warm-up
? Riddle of Symbolism

e.g        Three eyes I have,
All in a row;
When the red one opens,
All freeze.

Answer: A Traffic Light.
Controlled Techniques (Con’t)
Question-answer, display
? a badge

Hibiscus – National Ideology

Five circles – Co-curriculum

Book – Knowledge

Yellow – Loyalty
Semicontrolled Technique
Question-answer, referential
? Pupils’ opinion

Love           Anger

Evil                   Knowledge
Free Technique
Composition
? Autobiography
? WH-Questions

“I am a bird.”
How will you decide if the students are not developmentally ready for this material?
By,
NOOR AZLINA BINTI JIMIN

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development ? Children are not ready to learn symbolism.

Their abstract thinking is confined to logical and mathematical operation.

Have difficulty in understanding symbolism.

To ensure their readiness –> carry out a test.

——————————————-

How would you approach the situation???

Interaction
Teacher

PROBLEM BEHAVIOURS
WHY?

Why We Agreed To The Notion?
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY

————————————————-

Case Study Presentation – Group 4
Members:
Clarice Mondin
Mohd Ariffudin Zakaria
Muhaini Syamimi Matsah
Nurhafizah Anis Muhamad Yew
Siti Salwa Gahamat
The Case…

Why rote memory approach? By: Nurhafizah Anis Muhamad Yew

The environment

Schools always emphasize on examinations.
Class division is based on grades.
Annual prize giving ceremony.
Parents’ anticipation and expectation.

We FAIL to send the right message to our children

How would you teach your students to learn without memorising?

By: Siti Salwa Gahamat

Interactive learning
Group work
Stimuli (pictures, questions)

Task-based instruction

Strategies based instruction
Instill extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
Praise, reward, encouragement
Long term goal
‘its ok to make mistake’
Personal goal-setting
Peer factors
How will these issues affect the levels you will teach?

Issue – memorization (system) vs. comprehension (teacher)

Level – secondary school students

By: Muhaini Syamimi Matsah

——————————————————————————

CASE STUDY 5
One – Joe – Zul – Affif – Fauzi
Are the students “unmotivated”?
Are the students “unmotivated”?
Yes.
The students are bored.
Lack of motivation.
There are no improvement.
The teacher used the method that is not interesting.
Why Might They Be So PESSIMISTIC About Learning?
Possible Factors
Ineffective techniques or methods in teaching.

Aftermath: lack of intrinsic motivation.

Lack of teacher’s assurance in his or her belief towards the students’ ability.

Aftermath: Lack of self-confidence – leading to “I can’t” attitude.

Teacher’s role in defining and explaining the benefits and objective of learning the language.

Aftermath: Lack of extrinsic motivation which determine and redefine their pursuit of learning.

Peer influence – Other students from the “projects”

Affect and influence the students in terms of;
Threats
Attitude towards learning
Commitment to task
What can be done to change the attitudes in the class?

Help learners to take charge of their own learning through setting some personal goals and utilizing learning strategies.

Apply learner-centered strategy where the teacher should give students opportunities to make choices in activities, topics, discussion.

Organize activities that are interesting to the students to get them more linguistically involve in the learning process.

Test, with some special attention from the teacher, can be intrinsically motivating.
SAVING TEACHER’S SINKING MOTIVATION
SAVING TEACHER’S SINKING MOTIVATION
Saving unmotivated teachers through the practice of intrinsic motivation.

Intrinsic motivation in teaching is the internal desire to educate people, to give knowledge and value is always in teaching as a vocational goal.

“Performing a behavior for its own sake in order to experience pleasure and satisfaction such as the joy of doing a particular activity or satisfying one’s curiosity” is the definition of intrinsic motivation (Dörnyei, 2001b:47).

Intrinsic reward is divided into two most satisfying views of teaching as a profession:

1. The educational process itself
Teacher’s performance affected by working with students and perceiving the changes in the student’s performance and behavior.

2. The subject matter
Studying a valued field and new information in it so it leads to increase one’s own level of professional skills and knowledge.

How will these issues affect the level you will teach?
Learners Proficiency Levels:
Beginner
Intermediate
Advanced
How does it affect?
Clash of interest among levels
Different levels need different approaches.
Weak/beginner: teacher-centered, simple instruction, audiovisual aids, interactive activities.
Advanced: student-centered, more complicated knowledge, classroom activities are waste of time.
Unequal motivation; harm the overall lesson.
Clash of interest among levels
Students lose focus; lessons do not feed their interest.
Unequal motivation may harm the whole class.

Cheating in test
Inaccuracy of students’ performance data.
Difficult to assess students actual performance.
Unable to recognize students proficiency levels.
Teacher cannot choose adequate approach for students based on their level.
Peer influence
“Projects” students- possibly problematic, rebellious and beginner level students.
May negatively influence other students.
Teacher needs to reconstruct learning; demotivates other students.

————————————————

CASE STUDY DISCUSSION
PREPARED BY:
MOHD. FADLY FIRDAUS BIN DURAHIM
MOHD. ZAKRIE SAFWAN TOBING
MOHD. SYAFIQ BIN MOHD. FADELI
SHAHRUL ZAMAN BIN HANAFIAH
How would you arouse students’ curiosity and interest about the topics and tasks in the workbooks?
Intrinsic motivation In the classroom
Task based teaching
3)    Activities @ methods:-
> use simple language & 2 ways of communication
> fill in the blank
> treasure hunt
Extrinsic motivation
Give rewards
Give appreciation
Task based teaching…
Use various input such as media extract, newspaper, advertisement and etc…
This will help to increase students’ interest to the tasks in the workbooks.
Activities @ methods…
Use simple language in classroom
2 ways of communication
Integrating the “4 skills”-reading,listening,writing and speaking
Use various ways in teaching e.g.: use fill in the blank, treasure hunt, collected answers, etc…
This will include the comprehension, grammar, etc…
2. How would you establish the value of learning this material?
Let the students know the goal of learning the subject that is to make them pass the examination.
a)    teacher to give support to the students     that they have perform well in learning     the language so that they can do well     during the district assessment.

According to Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980), the students are categorized under the Formal-operational Stage’ where children become more developed as this stage is between eleven years old until adolescence.
Since the adolescents (teacher) understand cause-and effect relationships, they are able to use scientific method to explain reality and also being able to learn complex mathematical, linguistic, and mechanical processes.

As to relate this with the value of teaching using this material, the methods that have been suggested in the previous slides would gain students’ attention as well as their interest in learning the subject.

The teacher to give them exposure of the importance of learning the subject which is for their own good, especially in the future.

MATERIALS
Books (Exercise books, reference books etc)
Pictures
Charts
ACTIVITIES
Conversations
Role-plays
Discussions
Chalkboard work

Teachers’ concern is not to choose a textbook, but to find creative use for the textbook that has been handed to you.
Look at any supporting materials available, or create your own materials in order to simplify students’ understanding process.

Don’t change any syllabus.
We have got enough in our hands, just:
Preparing a lesson
Carrying it out
Monitoring its unfolding
Managing the dynamics

According to Book 1 of Vistas (Brown 1992), he suggested teachers to use simulations and role plays.
For example: ordering in a restaurant.

How many kinds of sandwiches are there?
How much is a small salad?
How many kinds of drinks?
How much is a pie?
DESIGNER METHODS OF THE SPIRITED 1970S
Community Language Learning (Charles Curran 1972) -view a class as a group.
Caleb Gattegno’s The Silent Way – interested in humanistic approach (Chamot & McKeon 1984:2)
STRATEGIES FOR READING COMPREHENSION
Identify the purpose in reading
Use graphemic rules and patterns to aid in bottom-up decoding.
Efficient silent reading techniques
Skim the text for main ideas
Scan the text for specific information
Use semantic mapping or clustering
Guess when you aren’t certain
Analyze vocabulary
Distinguish between literal and implied meanings
Capitalize on discourse markers to process relationships.

A Behaviouristic Definition
– Human beings, like other living organisms, will pursue a goal because they perceive a reward for doing so. (Skinner)

Cognitive Definitions
– Rewards are very much a part of the whole picture, the difference lies in the sources of motivation and in the power of self-reward.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic Motivation
Carried out in anticipation of a reward from outside and beyond the self.
Typical extrinsic rewards are money, prizes, grades and even certain types of positive feedback

Intrinsic Motivation
There is no apparent reward except the activity itself.
To engage in the activities for their own sake and not because they lead to an extrinsic reward.
Aimed at bringing about certain internally rewarding consequences, namely, feelings of competence and self-determination.

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