TSL430 Study Case

LITERATURE IN MALAYSIAN SCHOOLS

Study Case:

The Analysis of Students’ Comprehension Level of The Poems in Form 1 (Poems: The Dead Crow, The lake Isle of Innisfree, and Life’s Brief Candle)

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CONTENT

No.

Content

Page

1.0

Introduction

1.1 Purpose

1.2 Objectives

1.3 Literature and Its Importance

1.4 Issues on Research

1

1

1

1

2

2.0

Methodology

2.1 Questionnaire Design

3

5

3.0

Data Analysis

3.1 The difficulty level of poems

3.2 Factors affecting students’ comprehension

10

10

11

4.0

Discussion of Findings

4.1 Classroom activities

4.1.1 Students’ preferred activities in literature

lesson

4.2 Teacher’s Role

4.3 Interest

4.4 Reference Books / Workbooks

4.5 Exposure

4. 6 Linguistic Proficiency

4. 7 Relevance

4. 8 Tuition Class

12

13

14

15

15

16

17

17

18

19

5.0

Conclusion

20

6.0

Bibliography

21

1.0 Introduction

B.Ed TESL Cohort 4 had been assigned by lecturer Miss. Diana Hwang to conduct a survey analysis on school students. This is an assignment of Literature in Malaysian Schools subject as we have to explore an issue regarding the study of literature in secondary schools.

Our group had decided to analyze students’ comprehension level of the poems they study in lower-secondary schools. There are three poems which they have to study when they are in Form 1; The Dead Crow, The lake Isle of Innisfree, and Life’s Brief Candle.

1.1 Purpose

The goal of this survey is to explore students’ comprehension level of the poems that they study in Form 1 which consists of three poems from the “Selected Poems and Short Stories Form 1” book.

1.2 Objectives

There are three main objectives that we wish to achieve in our survey which are:

a) To identify the factors affecting students’ understanding of the poems they study in Form 1.

b) To enhance our understanding as future English Language teachers of students’ ability to understand the poems they study in Form 1.

c) To enhance our efficiency in organizing and conducting a survey analysis as a part of learning.

1.3 Literature and Its Importance

Fundamentally, literature comprises writings that are highly regarded as composition of art. Most of these writings are thought-provoking, imaginative, high-quality and creative. Therefore, they are often regarded as valuable masterpieces in which they are able to overcome time and culture to communicate directly to the readers. In fact, most people believe that through literature, one will be able to understand the world around him or her in a better perspective.

Literature often deals with fundamental human issues such as friendship, love, hatred, destruction, emotion, betrayal, death, and so forth. Since these issues are very close to humans’ hearts, thus literature will definitely mean something to them and this encourages them indirectly to explore and learn more about literature. The main reason why literature is said to be thought-provoking is that when one reads literature, he or she will always be interacting, predicting, responding and evaluating the story itself. This is a good way of learning whereby it leads people to brainstorm their minds other than simply receiving inputs from others.

Besides, literature is often considered to be a way to introduce our students in schools to the cultural knowledge, the great thoughts, and the high culture of our society (Bloom, 1987; Cheyney, 1987; Hirsch, 1987; Ravitch & Finn, 1987). Other than that, Elstein, Shulman, and Sprafka (1978), for example, have shown that doctors who usually use “logical” thinking to do their work and solve their problems sometimes resort to storytelling to push their ideas along; narrative thought is a productive alternative for them. This shows how powerful and applicable the elements of literature are in our daily lives. All in all, it is unquestionable that literature is essential to broaden one’s mind and through literature, our effort to produce an open-minded nation could be achieved successfully.

1.4 Issues on Research

In year 2000, literature subject was introduced to Secondary School education as one of the elements that need to be taught in English Language subject. Students learn literature only when they start their secondary schooling and they do not study literature in primary schools. Thus, studying literature is definitely new for Form 1 students. They are introduced to the literature texts ‘Selected Poems and Short Stories: Form 1” as their starting point of learning literature subjects. Therefore, we are interested in exploring students’ comprehension of the particular literature texts since that is the first time they are being formally taught of literature subject.

However, our research is specified on the three poems in the book as we believe students do read short stories in leisure even before they go to secondary school but rarely they study or at least read poems. In fact, there is a programme called ‘NILAM’ which aim is to enhance students’ reading habit but the focus is more on generally non-literary books. The reading of novels and short stories are also included but the reading of poems is not emphasized. Thus, we decided to conduct this survey to study their comprehension of the three poems they learn in school, specifically, when they are in Form 1.

2.0 Methodology

The method that we use to conduct the survey is by distributing questionnaires to the target group. The questionnaires which consist of several simple and brief questions require students to answer the questions within some given time. The questionnaire will be collected and the data will be analyzed. There are five sections of the methodologies;

a) Respondent

The target group of the survey is Form 2 students of secondary urban school. There are 52 students whom are involved as our respondents for the survey. These respondents were selected on the basis of their completion of the study on the three poems in Form 1 and the prospect of the national examination Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) that they are going to sit in Form 3. Their age is assumed to be around 14 years old and there is no particular focus on their sex and other demographic compositions. Form 3 students were not selected as the questionnaires might be an interruption of their preparation for the national examination they are taking in that year. Only few demographic details about the respondents are asked and the rest is kept confidential.

b) Sampling Design

The questionnaires were distributed in the form of brochures which contain 11 questions. The respondents were required to tick their answers in the boxes given. 2 questions require respondents to choose answer from three option of A, B and C. There are 1 question and also 2 sub-questions that the respondents could answer more than one and question 4 until question 11 required respondents to answer whether ‘yes’ or ‘no’.

c) Procedures

There are 9 major steps in conducting the survey, namely:

1. Survey preparation: The purpose, target group and some other significant details of the survey must first be confirmed and approved. The questionnaires are designed on the basis of what data should be collected. As the draft of the questionnaires is approved, the survey can already be conducted.

2. Questionnaire distribution: The questionnaires are distributed to the respondents and they are required to answer within a given time.

3. Questionnaire collected: The questionnaires are collected back as the respondents completed it.

4. Data collection: The answers given by the respondents are recorded in an organized way, mostly in a form of chart.

5. Data analysis: The data are analyzed in order to delve the information needed. Comparison might be a possible means to conduct analysis.

6. Discussion of finding: As we completed analyzing the data, a discussion is held in order to determine the validity of data and methods are adopted to determine the final result of finding.

7. Result: As the data are analyzed, the result of the survey is finally obtained.

8. Report: As the finding is completed and the result is attained, the process and the outcome are documented in a report.

9. Presentation of finding: The finding of the data and most importantly is the result to a group of interest.

2.1 Questionnaire Design

The questionnaires are designed specifically to indicate certain data which can be obtain from the students. The arrangement is as below:

Identification of the difficulty level of the poems

Question 1 and 2 aims to identify which poem is the easiest and the hardest between the three poems.

Question:

1. Which poem is the easiest for you to understand?

  1. Life’s Brief Candle
  2. The Dead Crow
  3. The Lake Isle of Innisfree

2. Which poem is the hardest for you to understand?

  1. Life’s Brief Candle
  2. The Dead Crow
  3. The Lake Isle of Innisfree

Both question 1 and 2 are followed by sub-question in order to identify the reasons why the students find the particular poem is easy while the other one is difficult. There are 4 answers provided which students could answer more than one but students were allowed to give other answer in the following blank if their answers are not stated. However, only question 1 is used to identify the difficulty level of the poems and the factors affecting it. Question 2 is just a supplementary question. The questions provided are as follow:

Question 1

Why?

You may tick √ more than one

i. The meanings of poems are straightforward.

ii. The poem is interesting.

iii. The language is easy to understand.

iv. The theme is relevant to your life as a student.

Other: ____________________________

Question 2

Why?

i. The meanings of the poems are difficult.

ii. The poem is boring.

iii. The language is difficult to understand.

iv. The theme is not relevant to your life as a student.

Other: ________________________

Identification of the linguistic proficiency of the students

The answer (iii) for question 1 is used to identify the linguistic proficiency of the students. If they tick the answer, they are considered to have a good performance in the language.

Identification of relevance of the poems to the students

The answer (iv) for question 1 is used to identify the relevance of the poems to the students. If they tick the answer, they are reckoned to be able to relate the theme of the poem to their life as students.

The identification of students’ preference of activities in literature lesson

Question 3 is used to explore students’ preference in which classroom activity they prefer in their literature lessons. The respondents were required to tick in the box provided to indicate their answers and they could answer more than one. They were also required to give their reasons why they prefer that particular answer(s). The question is as follow:

3. What classroom activities do you prefer in your literature lessons?

i. Brainstorming session.

ii. Group discussion/work.

iii. Individual exercise.

iv. Pair works.

v. Reading aloud.

vi. Practice on exam questions.

Why? ________________________

Identification of the factors affecting students’ comprehension of the three poems

Each of question 4 until question 11 is used to identify the factors affecting students’ comprehension of the three poems. The questions required the respondents to tick their answer in the boxes provided. The questions are as follow:

Question 4 – 11 Yes No

4. Are you interested in learning the poems?

5. Do you use some references/workbooks to help you to

understand the poems?

6. Can you understand the poems without reference books /

workbooks?

7. Can you understand the poems without explanations from

your teachers in school?

8. Do you attend tuition classes in order to help you understand

the poems?

9. Do the activities given by your teacher help you to understand

the poems?

10. Apart from the three poems, do you read other English poems?

11. Have you learned other English poems before you learn

these poems?

Each question has its own function in identifying factors affecting students’ comprehension of the three poems. The functions are as follow:

Identification of interest of students in learning the poems

Question 4 is used to identify whether the students are interested in learning the poems or not. If they tick ‘yes’, they are considered to be interested in learning the poems.

Identification of the need of students for reference books and workbooks

Question 5 and question 6 are used to identify the whether students use reference books or workbooks to assist them in learning the poems. If they tick ‘yes’, they are believed to have used reference books or workbooks in learning the poems. However, only question 5 is used to identify the factor, question 6 is just a justification.

Identification of the need of students for explanations from teachers

Question 7 is used to identify whether students need explanations from their teachers in order to understand the poems better. If they tick ‘yes’, they do need teachers to provide them explanations in learning the poems.

Identification of the need of students for tuition classes

Question 8 is used to identify whether students attend tuition classes in order to gain more mastery of the poems. If they tick ‘yes’, they are attending tuition classes for literature lesson.

The identification of the effectiveness of classroom activity

Question 9 is used to identify whether the classroom activities they have in literature lesson helps them in their learning of the poems. If they tick ‘yes’, the activities conducted in classroom lesson of literature is effective in helping them to learn the poems.

The identification of students’ exposure on poems

Question 10 and question 11 are used to identify whether students study or read other poems apart from the lesson they have on the three poems they learn in Form 1. However, only question 10 is used to identify the factor, question 11 is just a supplementary question.

3.0 Data Analysis

3.1 The Difficulty Level of Poems

Figure 1: The easiest poem

The chart above shows that 39 students answered that the poem “The Dead Crow” as the easiest poem while there were only 5 of them answered that the poem “Life’s brief Candle” is the easiest. 6 of them answered that the poem “The Lake of Innisfree” as the easiest. From the result, it can be concluded that “The Dead Crow” is the easiest poem out of the three poems while “Life’s brief candle” is the least poem that students find easy to be understood.

3.2 Factors Affecting Students’ Comprehension of the Poems

Figure 2: Factors that affect students’ comprehension of the poems

Keyword:

Grade

Factors

A

Interest

B

Reference

C

Tuition

D

Classroom Activities

E

Exposure

F

Linguistic Proficiency

G

Relevance

H

Teacher’s role

The chart above indicates the factors that are affecting students’ comprehension. As it can be seen clearly, classroom activities is the highest factor which contributes to students’ comprehension with 46 students (88.46%) answered that classroom activities help them in understanding the poems. The role of teachers as the classroom resource in contributing to students’ comprehension of the poems is transparent as the second importance together with the interest of students after classroom activities with 40 students (76.92%) are interested in learning the poems and believe that they cannot understand the poems without any help from their teachers. The third highest record of factor is the use of reference books or workbooks by having 38 students (73.08%) using the books in enhancing their understanding of the poems more.

Exposure of the students to the particular type of literature text contributes in increasing students’ ability to understand the poems when 28 students (53.85%) answered that they do read other poems. Linguistic proficiency, undeniable, plays a significant role in helping students to understand the poems better as half of them (50%) admitted that the language of the poem is easy to understand.

The relevance of the poem does not contribute much in helping students’ understanding of the poems with 13 students (25%) answered that relevance is significant in helping them to understand the poems. Tuition classes have the least contribution when only 10 students (19.23%) attend tuition classes in obtaining better understanding of the poems.

4.0 Discussion of Finding

After we analyze the data, we proceeded to discuss our findings. We sought for scholar’s support of the data and possible reasons in the outcome of data.

4.1 Classroom Activities

Classroom activity refers to unified set of student behaviours, limited in time, preceded by some direction from the teacher, with a particular objective. Activities include role-plays, drills, games, exercise, oral interpretation of poems, storytelling, dramatization and there are many more (Brown, 2001).

There are many ranges of activities that are different to each other which hamper the elaboration of all benefits and functions even in one range. However, group work is the most preferable tasks. It is a multiplicity of techniques in which two or more students are assigned a task that involves collaboration and self-initiated language (Brown, 2001).

88.46% students answered that classroom activities help them in enhancing their understanding of the poems. Only 11.54% of the students do not feel that classroom activities are effective in helping them to learn the poems better.

4.1.1 Students’ preferred activities in literature lesson

Figure 3: Preferred activities

Keyword:

Choice

Activities

i

Brainstorming session

ii

Group discussion/work

iii

Individual exercise

iv

Pair work

v

Reading aloud

vi

Practice on exam questions

The chart above indicates the students’ preferred activities in literature lessons. Group work is the most preferable activities probably because it has the most advantages out of all activities. 37 students (71.15%) select group work as the most preferable activity probably because it offers the most advantages: Summarized from Brown’s (2001) advantages of group work, the advantages are as follow:

1. Group work generates interactive language

Group work provides a space conducive to the members to communicate more effectively with better attention, confidence and sense of freedom to speak which enhances the interaction.

2. Group work offers an embracing affective climate

It provides security for members of the group to be involved in interactive discussion with other members. It allows them to speak without embarrassment or anxiety as there are only few people involved in the interaction.

3. Group work promotes learner responsibility and autonomy

Group work gives the members the sense of being responsible of what they are learning and let them exercise their own creativity since they are given a sense of autonomy in their learning.

4. Group work is a step toward individualizing instruction

Students have varying abilities and needs such as a range of proficiency level, small group can help to accomplish their separate goals and meet the needs of each different individual.

4.2 Teacher’s Role

In order to enhance students’ understanding of the poems, teachers definitely play a vital role in providing the students explanations about the poems especially the messages. Teachers should be always available for advice and counsel when the student seeks it as teachers should be seen as the resource of the knowledge in the class.

Teachers should not just impart the knowledge but also assist the students on how to learn and discover the important elements of a literature text by themselves without the assistance of teachers. Teachers should emphasize on student-centred instruction as well and allow students to be independent, creative and autonomous in their learning.

A total of 76.93 % of the students answered that they cannot understand the poems without help from their teachers who provide explanations to them regarding the poems they are learning. 23.08 % of them answered that they can understand the poems without assistance from their teachers. Their teachers probably are effective in teaching the students as they managed to help the students in understanding the poems. They might be committed in their work and deliver their lessons effectively.

4.3 Interest

Students’ interest in learning poems might be a factor that motivates them to put effort in understanding the poems. Krapp (1992) have discovered three perspectives on interest and one of them is interest as a psychological state. Some of the characteristics of the state are increased attention, greater concentration, pleasant feelings of applied effort, and increased willingness to learn.

As the interest increases students’ motivation in learning the poems, their will be able to understand them better as they are putting more efforts in their learning. Although they might have obstacles in understanding the poems for some reasons such as poor linguistic proficiency or lack of exposure, their effort will enhance their capability to compensate these impediments and gain facilitative alternatives to achieve better understanding of they are interested to, specifically, poems.

From our survey, 76.92 % of the students are interested in learning poems. 23.08 % of them are not interested in learning the poems. Most of the students are interested in learning the poems probably due to the high motivation they have in their learning stems from the schools’ high expectation, conducive to learning environment, rewards system based on achievement and other characteristics of effective schools. According to Hammeck (1990), Effective schools create positive academic achievement environments, raise students’ self-esteem and students’ self concept and reduce sense of futility.

4.4 Reference Books / Workbooks

Reference books or workbooks are also important for students as they need to enhance their mastery of the poems both through practices of examination questions and read supplementary analysis of the poems. Reference books or workbooks can also give the students an idea of what is poem and how to understand it better through some appropriate ways. The need of workbooks for practices might spur the students into using the books in their learning. In fact, the school and the teachers might probably suggest several books to the students.

73.08 % of the students use reference books or workbooks to enhance their understanding the poems and only 26.92 % of them who do not use any reference books or workbooks to obtain better understanding of the poems. The students live in urban areas surrounding the capital city which indicates their secure socioeconomic background that contributes to their possession of workbooks and reference books since the family can afford such books.

4.5 Exposure

The students’ previous exposure on English poems whether in a formal or informal means might assist them in learning new poems in form one as they have grown familiar on the language, genre and some other elements of the texts. The more time they spent learning any aspect of a second language, the more they will learn about it and the better they will understand the particular aspect, specifically, literature.

When students encounter a particular text, as in everyday discourse, they establish a certain social orientation relative to their perceptions of the text. Their responses may differ according to their perceptions of the implied text (Booth, 1988). If they are familiar to the text, they are able to orient themselves with the text and adopt approaches toward understanding a particular text in a predominantly literary manner.

Thus, students who have received earlier exposure might equip them the horizon on the pragmatics function of language in literary texts. The students might be able to deal with literary devices and gain benefits from them such as simile and metaphor although they might not be able to understand some words they encounter in their reading. S. Langer (1942) suggests the very first few words they can be already drawn into the text, leaving the everyday world behind. They seek to identify the genre from the moment reading begins, and this helps them in shaping the way they read and the meanings they create (Langer, 1986). Thus, the reader “weaves a web of feelings, sensations, images, and ideas” between the self and the text (Rosenblatt, 1978).

53.85 % of the students are exposed to that type of literature texts as they read other poems apart from the three poems which are mandatory to be taught in schools. 46.15% of them do not read other poems as they only read the three poems. The students receive earlier exposure of learning the poems probably due to their educated family background which emphasizes the learning of the children that they are exposed to what they will learn in school earlier.

4.6 Linguistic proficiency

Students’ mastery of English Language especially understanding vocabulary varies as there are students who are advanced to be challenged by such text and there are students who are still elementary in dealing with such texts. Linguistic proficiency contributes to student’s ability to understand the poems especially in terms of the language used.

One of the techniques utilized unconsciously by learners in understand any text written in second language or foreign language is lexical inferencing. Lexical inferencing actually “involves making informed guesses as to the meaning of a word in light of all available linguistic cues in combination with the learner’s general knowledge of the world, her awareness of context and her relevant linguistic knowledge” (Haastrup, 1987, p. 197). It may also lead to retention of the word form as well as semantic and other lexical information (Paribakht & Wesche, 1999).

Thus, students who have good language proficiency are able to understand all or most of the semantic significance of the poems especially the meaning of words used in the texts. The technique can only be applied by students who have good second language proficiency (Haastrup, 1990) as it is the crucial requisite of reaching to the level that enable learners to attain such ability.

Half of the students or 50% of them find the language used in the poems is easy. The other half finds the language is not easy but is still capable in understanding the poems. Students who have linguistic proficiency probably come from English-speaking home environment that they have already learned to use the language since they were children with their family and friends.

4.7 Relevance

If students are able to relate the messages conveyed by the poems to their own personal life, environment and experience, it will increase their chance to understand the poems more. If students cannot relate what the poems are trying to impart, difficulty might emerge for them to develop their understanding

Byram and Moore (1993) point out that in the absence of knowledge about cultural antecedents learners are left to interpret the text on the basis of prior assumptions, and tend to assimilate the culture under study to their own. The significant theme in discussions of its context carries meaning structures which are associated with time, place, person, and circumstance. If students do not know the context in terms of spatial, temporal, person and situational element, their interpretation will suffer and impede their understanding.

Kant (1781) says that background knowledge plays a role in reading comprehension because the new information, concepts and ideas only exhibit meanings for an individual when they can be related to something the individual already knows. In their attempt of understanding a particular text, learners draw on their knowledge of the world which is “viewed as part of language user’s and language learner’s general socio-cultural knowledge” (Haastrup, 1991, p. 47).

Most of the students could not relate the poems to their life probably because they are not oriented with the messages of the poems. ‘Life’s brief candle’ is a quotation from a Shakespeare’s masterpiece, ‘The Tragedy of Macbeth’ which is not being studied by the students which results in their inability to understand the context of the poem. “The Lake Isle of Innisfree” seems to be the self-actualization of a man who desires a peaceful, isolated life in a perceived imaginary place. The message might be too unfamiliar for students who are still studying for brighter future in their life who are more focused on the prospect of their numerous dreams being fulfilled.

4. 8 Tuition class

Some students attend tuition class in order to get supplementary literature lesson and most probably because some parents feel that the lesson given in school within school hour is not sufficient for their children to obtain complete lessons which can contribute to their performance in study especially in examinations.

19. 23 % of the students attend tuition classes in order to get more lessons on poems, by extension, increase their understanding. Most of them do not attend tuition classes as 78.85 % of them answered that they do not take any tuition classes. However, one of them did not give any answer to the question. The percentage of the students who are taking tuition class is low.

In fact, it is the lowest percentage of the factors that contributed to students’ understanding of the poems. Probably, they are provided with high-standard education in their schools as the school is an urban school which is well-equipped with facilities, accessible, conducive and has an effective teaching force.

As we completed the analysis of our data, we found out that we managed to identify which poem is the easiest for the students and which one is the hardest from the three poems students are learning in Form 1 syllabus. We also managed to obtain the percentages for each of 8 factors which play a role in students’ comprehension on the three poems. We discovered that classroom activities are the most effective assistance in students’ understanding of the three poems and the poem “The Dead Crow’ appears to be the easiest poem for students to understand out of the three poems they are learning. We also found out that group work is the most preferred activity to be performed in literature lesson.

We decided to include all the data we managed to analyze and identify; the difficulty level of the poems, the factors affecting students’ comprehension of the poems and the most preferred classroom activity in literature lesson. Thus, our finding will be more complete and beneficial to be utilized in the teaching and learning of the three poems students learn in Form 1; The Dead Crow, The lake Isle of Innisfree, and Life’s Brief Candle.

5.0 Conclusion

There are many reasons that make learning poems in Malaysian schools Ineffective. Therefore, teachers should improve the learning of poems in order to enhance the effectiveness of literature subject lesson. Here, we would like to suggest some ways that teachers can use to make learning poems more alive and of course, effective.

Teachers should allow students to be active in their own learning by giving them student-centred activities that provide them the sense of being free to be creative, interactive and sense of autonomy and independence in their perspectives, opinions and ideas especially in literature lessons which requires students’ creativity and competence in their exploration of the elements in literature and expression of ideas and opinions.

Teachers should expand the techniques and activities utilized in literature lesson to engage students’ interest and elicit their commitment in learning the poems. Teachers should carry out various interesting, fun and challenging yet effective activities in the classroom for students to participate more in the lesson and exhibit willingness to learn the poems. The ranges of the activities are dramatization, reading-aloud, role-play demonstration, creative writing and there many more activities or techniques which can be created by teachers.

Teaching literature is not simple as teachers do not just impart knowledge to students but also have to attempt to attract the students to see and enjoy the beauty of literature in order for them to be willing to learn the subject and give their commitment in learning it. Thus, they will be able to become more reflective, critical, creative and efficient in English language as the second language in Malaysia.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

List of Books:

1. Phillipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith, & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign/second language pedagogy research (pp. 120-133). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

2. Langer, S. (1942). Philosophy in a New Key. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

3. Rosenblatt, L. (1978). The Reader, The Text, The Poem. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

4. Elstein, A., Shulman, L. & Sprafka, S. (1978). Medical Problem-solving: The analysis of clinical reasoning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

5. Langer, J.A. (1986). Children reading and writing: Structures and strategies. Norwood, NJ: Ablex

6. Bloom, A. (1987). The Closings of the American Mind. New York: Simon & Schuster.

7. Cheyney, L. (1987). American memory: A report on the humanities in the nation’s public schools. Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for the Humanities.

8. Judith A. Langer (1989). The Process of Understanding Literature. New York.

9. Haastrup, K. (1991). Lexical inferencing procedures or talking about words. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.

10. Moore, J. (1991). An analysis of the cultural content of post-secondary textbooks for Spanish: Evidence of information processing strategies and types of learning in reading selections and post-reading adjunct questions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

11. Byram, M., & Morgan, C. (1994). Teaching-and-learning language-and-culture. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.

12. Paribakht, T. S., & Wesche, M. (1999). Reading and “incidental” L2 vocabulary acquisition: An introspective study of lexical inferencing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 195-218.

13. H. Douglas Brown (2001). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. San Francisco State University.

14. Hammack, Floyd M. “ From grade to Grade: Promotion Policies and At-Risk Youth”, in Joan Lakebrink (ed), Children at Risk (Springfield, III: Charles C. Thomas, 1990).

List of internet websites:

1. http://www.hawaii.edu/sls/uhwpesl/19(2)/Soria.pdf

2. http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/elt/library_classics/conditions_c10.pdf

3. http://www.early-advantage.com/Articles/Topten.aspx

4. http://www.cal.org/earlylang/benefits/marcos.html

5. http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/clep/ex_ail.html

6. http://uwp.duke.edu/wstudio/resources/documents/poetry.pdf

7. http://www.teachingliterature.org/teachingliterature/chapter4/activities.htm

8. http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/poetry-explication.html

9. http://www.aare.edu.au/98pap/ain98054.htm

10. http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=052183662X&ss

Slide 1

The Analysis of Students’ Comprehension Level of The Poems in Form 1

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